Industrial Policies in Germany and Sweden: Taking the examples of the chemistry and pharmaceutical industries
The European economy is facing fierce and powerful competition from other world regions. Today’s globalisation means a shift in the world’s economic focus. Most of the growth in the world economy is in developing countries, which are consequently increasing both their offerings and their demand for knowledge and innovation. In 1980, Germany had 6.7 per cent of the world GDP; in 2014, it is 3.7 per cent. Countries like China, India and Indonesia are climbing rapidly up the global value chains, competing with expertise, excellent innovation environments, and low production costs. Between 1980 and 2014, China increased its share of global GDP from 2.2 per cent to 16 per cent (www.gfmag.com).
Both Germany and Sweden have long been viewed as countries in which the manufacturing industry is important for growth and wealth. The industry represents about 22 per cent of GDP in Germany and about 15 per cent in Sweden. The chemical and pharmaceutical sectors as parts of the overall manufacturing industry are not only important in size (employment, export) for the two countries; they also produce strategic products and are in the forefront for driving innovation.
01 January 2014 - 31 December 2015Research Team:Dr. rer. pol. Jochen Tholen, Dipl.-Kaufmann,Dipl.-Soziologe
(Head of project)
IF Metal, Sweden
IG Bergbau, Chemie, Energie - Germany